- The refuge is located in south central Indiana, a gently rolling outwash drift and till area from Illinoian glaciation. The refuge is near the center of the Muscatatuck River watershed.
Fifty-five percent is deciduous forest, 25% marsh and water and 40% is in various stages of plant succession from cropland, grassland to scrub/shrub land. Water management in some 15 impoundments is by gravity flow and provides a haven for nesting wood ducks and Canada geese and a resting and feeding area for a host of other migratory birds. Otters were introduced on the refuge by Indiana DNR in 1995 and have successfully raised young.
Some 125,000 refuge visitors annually utilize the Visitor Center, nine miles of roads, several foot trails, auto tour route and hunting and fishing areas. The refuge has been included on the National Register of Historic Places for its archeological sites.