- The National Elk Refuge provides critical winter range for an elk herd of approx. 8,500. Elk are supplementally fed about 75 days most winters when natural forage is not available. Shiras moose, mule deer, bighorn sheep, pronghorn antelope, bison and coyotes enjoy habitat on the refuge.
Nearly 175 species of birds have been observed. Large numbers of ravens, black-billed magpies, bald and golden eagles are scavengers. Kestrels, great-horned owls, red-tailed hawks and prairie falcons nest on the refuge. Ospreys frequently hunt on the refuge. Trumpeter swans nest successfully and winter populations include tundra swans. Sage grouse occur year around. Rocky Mountain Canada geese nest on wetlands.
Two major streams - the Gros Ventre River and Flat Creek flow through the refuge and fishing is popular with fly fishermen for the native Snake River cutthroat trout. There are several cultural sites on the refuge and the Miller House is listed on the National Register.